IoT Technology Stack
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a unique technology that allows you to control simple household appliances through data transfer functions. Without such platforms, it is impossible to create smart home technology, so the user needs an IoT stack, a simple chain that consists of basic parts of typical systems, that are described below in detail.
What is IoT Technology Stack?
An IoT Technology Stack is a type of smart product that, when installed, makes it possible to seamlessly transfer data between different devices in a residential, home, or neighborhood. Data transmission is carried out via wireless networks Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, GPRS, and many others.
· 5 levels of IoT Technology Stack
· Devices, which are subjected to the installing of the program.
· Gateway for data transferring.
· Different ways of communication.
· Cloud platforms and systems.
· Cloud interfaces are used for different applications.
· IoT devices
Devices are designed to collect and analyze data. When installing the software into any device, it breaks into an intelligent system that instructs to execute complex algorithms. Almost all modern devices designed for collecting and storing data can serve several access points at once.
The principle of operation of IoT devices consists in the need to promptly collect information from all transmitting devices installed in the premises or on the ground, after which they are sent for cloud storage.
The most popular platforms and systems:
· Intel Edison.
· Raspberry Pi.
· Arduino MKR1000.
Sensors and actuators
Sensors are devices that convert real manifestations of the change in the external world into digital signals for transmitting data to the system with subsequent analysis of the information. There are sensors for temperature, humidity, smoke, and other manifestations of a physical phenomenon. It is necessary to say that sensors began to be used many years ago. when the IoT did not exist yet.
Actuators are such devices that analyze the information received and begin actively according to the algorithm set in them. For example, they lower the temperature or turn on an automatic alarm. Also, these devices are responsible for the transmission of data and their visualization on the screens of PCs or mobile devices.
The IoT gateway is a universal device that joins all actuators in one system. These appliances are usually connected to Wi-Fi or Bluetooth module to transfer data, according to the registered IP address.
These devices are connected to an external or internal server that is serving different account holders. In the presence of two-way communication, the user receives up-to-date information about the state of the household appliance in real-time.
IoT networks and protocols
In the market you can find the following popular gateways and network protocols:
· LoRaWAN gateway. It works with the networks like Wi-Fi, Ethernet, or 3G. All transferred and received data are stored in a cloud, or the WWW server. So, all application owners can always see the visual data on their PC or smartphones, in case of entering personal security information.
· ZigBee. The system has its protocols and can be connected to the Internet exclusively through its own gateway ZigBee. Such a system is widely used in practice for the dispatching of energy metering systems in residential and public buildings.
· Wi-Fi. The most popular system, providing wireless Internet communication using protocols of different layers. It is usually installed in any object to provide access to a remote server.
· BLE. One of the modern modifications of the local wireless connection between several paired devices. The technology is widely used for the local reading of information from transmitters to reading devices.
· M2M and wire connection. Such is the concept of data transmission. As a rule, it is used in large industrial surveys. Provides the transfer of large amounts of data without interference and increased security due to the closed system, which prevents cyberattacks.
Application layer protocols
There are several application layer protocols, that can be classified into several categories:
· MQTT, XMPP, AMQP, JMS. Provide the ability to exchange information upon request or subscription
· CoAP. A primitive system adapted for data exchange on low-performance devices.
· REST / HTTP. The most popular protocols are used in most PCs and mobile devices.
Modern smartphones support all three categories of data transfer protocols, provided that there is such type of pairing with a dual server or other devices.
These devices are the brain centers of any IoT remote data transmission system. These platforms are usually built, using the microservices architecture, that allows to control different parts of the system details and upgrade them without interfering with the entire application.
These smart products are necessary for cloud storage of dull information after it has been downloaded.
How to choose the IoT technology stack?
To choose the necessary system when developing and installing their own IoT module, users take into account many important nuances:
· Determine exactly what tasks are in front of the system.
· Choose the required number of sensors with the required sensitivity level.
· Decide the necessary method of data analysis.
· Choose the gateway for fast and secure information transfer.
At the final stage, a finished intellectual product is obtained. The main task of the system is the timely collection of the necessary information about the operability of the household device, or the receipt of actual data from the device for further sending and storage. After creating that product, you will be left with boring marketing and find a free client audience.
Privacy and security
One of the main tasks of any developer is to ensure the complete security of the personal data of their clients. To do this, encryption keys and other settings are introduced into the system, which will prevent outsiders from entering the network.
If security measures are neglected, an attacker will be able to use the smart home system for his purposes. This is expressed in the collection of information, for example, about the energy-saving mode, which indicates the absence of the owners of the house. Such prompts can cause significant harm to users, as well as cause irreparable damage.
To ensure the correct development of an intelligent IoT system stack, it is necessary to strictly follow the 5-level algorithm, that was described above, and draw up a detailed plan before starting any design. When contacting us, our professionals will perform all the services in strict accordance with international safety requirements and provide a long-term guarantee for the result.
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